© 2007 International Disaster/Fire Training Institute Inc.


EM125 Attack Environment Manual Chapter Information

What You Get: Nine volumes with approximately 472 pages with illustrations

See some Sample Test Questions

Chapter 1

1 Nuclear Defense Operations
2 The Basis for Operational Planning
3 The Nuclear Threat
4 The MIRV Story
5 Accuracy of Weapons
6 Reliability of Weapons
7 Direct Effects of a 500-KT Weapon
8 Direct Effects of Other Yields
9 An Example Target Complex Attack
10 Survivors from Two 5-MT Weapons
11 Survivors from Larger Attacks
12 Fallout from a 500-KT Surface Burst
13 Targeting Considerations
14 What is a Contingency?
15 Emergency Operations
16 The Need for Direction and Control
17 The Importance of Communications
18 Operations in Various Contingencies
19 Basic Fire Situations
20 Basic Fallout Situations
21 Basic Operating Situations
22 Planning Assumptions
23 Nuclear Defense Planning

Chapter 2

1 General Effects of Blast
2 Survival in Ordinary Buildings
3 The Importance of "Low" Overpressure
4 What the Blast Wave Is
5 A Dam Analogy
6 Relationship of Blast Wind to Overpressure
7 Effects on People in the Open
8 Damage to Buildings
9 A Typical Blast Experiment
10 Effects on People in Buildings
11 Protective Actions
12 Blast Protection in Home Basements
13 Survival in Load-Bearing Wall Buildings
14 Survival on Upper Floors of Framed Buildings
15 Protection in Basements
16 Best Basement Shelters
17 Poor Basement Shelters
18 Subways, Tunnels, Mines, and Caves
19 Best Available Blast Shelter
20 Protective Posture for Blast Survival
21 Effects of Ground Shock on People
22 Damage from Ground Shock
23 Damage from Blast Wind
24 Debris from Nuclear Blast
25 Industrial Hardening
26 Industrial Protection Alternatives
27 Damage to Vehicles
28 Damage to Urban Utilities Systems
29 What About Hills?
30 Built-up Areas
31 Area of Light Damage
32 Area of Moderate Damage
33 Area of Severe Damage
34 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 3

1 Fire in a Blast-Damaged Environment
2 The Fire Threat
3 The Thermal Pulse
4 Modification of Thermal Effects by Atmospheric Conditions
5 Effects of Thermal Pulse on Exposed People
6 Thermal Shielding
7 Shielding Indoors
8 Ignitions Due to Thermal Pulse
9 Effect of the Blast Wave in Suppressing Fires
10 Effect of the Blast Wave in Starting Fires
11 Room Flashover
12 Fire Spread Within Residences
13 Fire Spread in Damaged Residences
14 Fire Spread Within Tall Buildings
15 Fire Spread Between Buildings
16 Fire Spread by Flame Radiation
17 Spread by Fire Brands
18 Large Fires and Life Loss
19 Firestorm Possibilities
20 How Many Fire Starts?
21 Urban Fuel Loading
22 Building Density
23 Burning Times of Buildings
24 Model of A Real City-Fire Start
25 Model of A Real City-Fire Spread
26 Model of A Real City-Fire Winds
27 Survival in Fire Areas
28 Fire Survival in Residential Areas
29 Fire Survival in Large Basements
30 The Effect of Fire on Property
31 The Basic Fire Defense Problem
32 Some Historical Experiences of Note
33 Self-Help Fire Defenses
34 Conflagration Assessment
35 Possible Attacks and Consequences
36 Nuclear Winter
37 Suggested Reading and Glossary of Terms and Units

Chapter 4

1 What is EMP?
2 Why Worry About EMP?
3 Surface Burst EMP
4 High-Altitude Burst EMP
5 High-Altitude EMP Coverage
6 Damage from EMP
7 EMP Protection (Hardening)
8 EMP and Lightning
9 EMP Testing
10 Vulnerability of Broadcast Radio
11 Vulnerability of Public Safety Radio
12 Vulnerability of Telephone Systems
13 Vulnerability of Electric Power
14 Vulnerability of Emergency Operating Centers
15 Operational EMP Defenses
16 Radio Blackout
17 High-Altitude Burst Thermal Effects
18 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 5

1 Initial Nuclear Radiation
2 Gamma and Neutron Radiation
3 Radiation Injury
4 Radiation Sickness
5 Levels of Sickness
6 Later Consequences of Radiation Injury
7 Somatic and Genetic Effects
8 Range of Initial Nuclear Radiation
9 Protection Against Initial Nuclear Radiation
10 Initial Nuclear Radiation from "Small" Weapons
11 What Happened at Hiroshima
12 Blast Effects of "Small" Weapons
13 Fire Effects of "Small" Weapons
14 Summary
15 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 6

1 Radioactivity in Fallout
2 Kinds of Nuclear Radiation
3 Radioactive Decay
4 Decay of the Fission-Product Mixture
5 What Fallout Is
6 Why All Fallout is Not Alike
7 The Mushroom Cloud
8 Fallout Prediction Models
9 An Example Fallout Situation
10 The Fallout Pattern
11 Maximum Exposure Rates
12 Visible Aspects of Fallout
13 Measuring Fallout Radiation
14 Exposure Rate Measurement and Prediction
15 Protracted Exposure and Biological Recovery
16 Actual Exposure Rates
17 Another Variability--Weathering
18 Fallout Protection Factor
19 Protection Against Fallout Radiation
20 How Much Fallout Protection Is Needed?
21 Protection in Residential Basements
22 Effect of Size of Weapon
23 Effect of Winds
24 Skin Burns from Fallout
25 Contamination of Water and Milk
26 Effects on Livestock
27 Effects on Crops and Cropland
28 Effects on the Human Ecosystem
29 Effects on the General Ecology
30 Fallout in the Damaged Area
31 Early Operational Exposures
32 Later Operational Exposures
33 Effect of Fires on Fallout Deposition
34 Effect of Damage on Fallout Protection
35 What About Hills?
36 A Note on Decontamination
37 What About Boats?
38 Facts About Radiation and Fallout
39 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 7

1 The Shelter Environment
2 Space
3 Air
4 Temperature Control
5 Water
6 Sleep
7 Health and Sanitation
8 Food
9 Lighting
10 Single-Purpose Shelters
11 Dual-Use Shelter Space
12 Upgraded Shelter
13 Expedient Shelters
14 Ventilation
15 Water Supply
16 Sanitary Arrangements
17 Provisions for Medical Care
18 Priority Initial Actions in High-Hazard Areas
19 Initial Actions in Fallout Hazard Areas
20 Emergency Response to Damage
21 Emergency Response to Fallout
22 Initial Actions in Residential Basements
23 Some Points on Human Behavior
24 Direction and Control
25 Life Support Tasks
26 Morale Support Activities
27 Shelter Emergence
28 Trained Leadership
29 The Shelter System Officer
30 The Shelter Use Plan
31 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 8

1 Will the Survivors Envy the Dead?
2 Postattack Recovery
3 Social and Psychological Needs
4 What the War Was Like
5 The Fallout Constraint
6 Will the Sun Shine Again?
7 Ecological Defense
8 Decontamination
9 Restoring the Water Supply
10 Expedient Electric Power
11 Restoring Energy Supplies
12 Establishing the Food Supply
13 Emergency Housing
14 Public Health
15 Treatment of Injured Survivors
16 Treatment of Disease
17 Expanding Public Safety Forces
18 Redeployment
19 Early Production Problems
20 Restoring Industrial Production
21 Economic Recovery
22 Crisis Actions for Economic Recovery
23 Agricultural Production
24 Radiation Exposure Control
25 Motivating the Survivors
26 Reestablishing Institutions
27 Postshelter Problems in Damaged Areas
28 Debris Clearance
29 Asset Preservation and Salvage
30 Emergency Repairs
31 Suggested Additional Reading

Chapter 9

1 What's In A Plan
2 The Planning Process
3 Shelter and Evacuation
4 Shelter Survey
5 In-Place Protection Planning
6 Shelters and Staging Areas
7 Control Centers
8 Emergency Organization I
9 Evacuation Planning
10 Hazard Areas and Reception Areas
11 Movement Planning
12 Residual Operations in the Hazard Area
13 Essential Worker Shelter (EWS)
14 Reception and Care Arrangements
15 Emergency Organization II
16 The Law Enforcement Service
17 The Fire and Rescue Service
18 The Health and Medical Service
19 The Reception and Care Service
20 The Resource and Supply Service
21 The Public Works and Utilities Service
22 Putting It All Together
23 Operations Planning - The Checklist Approach
24 Triggering Events
25 Exercises
26 Suggested Additional Reading



Which of the following is NOT an effective way to evaluate a nuclear defense program or emergency action?
a. simulation
b. hypothesizing various attack and defense combinations
c. evaluating the consequences
d. formulating a counter-attack

Underground piping is usually
a. not seriously disrupted below an overpressure of 10-15 psi.
b. affected similarly by earthquake and air-induced ground shock of a nuclear detonation
c. affected even in peacetime from traffic loads, especially older water, gas and sewer systems.
d. all of the above

One of the best kept secrets of surviving the blast wave of a nuclear explosion is by staying on the far side of a hill. Using this terrain feature insures a drastic reduction in blast pressures. T-F

That EMP is harmful to electronic equipment is not simple theory,
a. there are no real incidents related to EMP on equipment
b. lights in Hawaii failed during nuclear tests in the 1960s.
c. the study of lighting is sufficient to deal with the EMP threat
d. modern electronics is no longer vulnerable like those from the 1960s

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Government publications used in this document have been electronically transcribed by
International Disaster/Fire Training Institute, Inc.
Sources used to develop these courses are public domain documents.